Endocrinology is originated from endocrine + ology which is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with its specific secretions known as prophylactic, the endocrine system and diseases. It is also involved with the process of integrating of developmental events proliferation, growth, differentiation, and the psychological or behavioral activities of metabolism, tissue function, growth and development, respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, sleep, digestion, reproduction, and sensory perception caused by the hormones.
Genetics of Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is caused by two factors i.e. genetic and environmental factors. Scientists have linked into several gene mutations to a higher diabetes exposure. Not everyone who carries a mutation will also get diabetes. However, many people with diabetes do have one or more of this metamorphosis.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis is often denounced, because many signs and symptoms are non-specific. For example, redness of the skin (erythema), by itself is a sign of many disorders and thus does not convey the healthcare professional what is inaccurate. Thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared as well as contrasted, must be implementing. This involves the correlation of various pieces of information followed by the recognition and differentiation of arrangements.
Diabetes and Obesity
Diabetes and Obesity is a process of being overweight or obese increases the chances of developing the common type of diabetes and type2 diabetes. In this disease, body makes of enough insulin but the cells in the body have become resistant to the salutary action of the insulin. Specifically, overeating stresses the membranous network inside of cells called endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
Gestational diabetes is a phase of high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy and usually disappears after giving birth. It can occur at any stage of pregnancy, but it is more common in the second half. It occurs if your body cannot produce enough insulin and – a hormone that helps control blood sugar levels – to meet the extra needs in pregnancy.
Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a very serious metabolic disorder that prevents a normal breakdown and in the use of food etc.., especially sugars such as (carbohydrates) by the body. It can also damage the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, neurological system and can cause a progressive loss of vision over and over many years.
Diabetic Foot & Other Related Disorders
A diabetic foot that exhibits any pathology that results in directly from diabetes mellitus or any long-term (or "chronic") such as complication of diabetes mellitus. Presence of several characteristic diabetic foot pathologies where as infection, diabetic foot ulcer and neuropathic osteoarthropathy is also called diabetic foot syndrome. Due to the peripheral nerve dysfunction associated with diabetes such as (diabetic neuropathy), patients have a reduced ability to feel the pain.
Biomarkers for Diabetes
Biomarkers and Diabetes are conventionally defined as “biological molecules that represent health and disease states”. They typically measured in readily available body fluids of (blood or urine), lie outside the causal pathway; these are able to detect sub-clinical disease and are also used to monitor clinical and sub-clinical disease are burden and also responds to treatments. Biomarkers can be of “direct” endpoints of the disease itself, or “indirect” or surrogate terminations. New technologies such as (metabolomics, proteomics, and genomics) bring a wealth of opportunity to develop a new biomarkers.
Diabetic Drug Discovery
Diabetic drug discovery is Human islet amyloid peptide (hIAPP1-37) aggregation is one of the early step processes in Diabetes Mellitus. This is to evaluate a family type of pharmaco-chaperones to act as modulators, which provides a dynamic intervention and also the multi-target capacity such as (native state, cytotoxic oligomers, protofilaments and fibrils of hIAPP1-37) which required meeting the treatment challenges of diabetes. We have used a cross-functional way of approach that combines in silico and as well as in vitro biochemical and biophysical methods to study the hIAPP1-37 aggregation-oligomerization.
Diabetes Complications is a mechanism of action and also biological role of C-peptide. It is a state that the C-peptide should be considered as an endogenous peptide hormone, playing an important role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and exerting physiological effects plays an important role for the prevention and treatment of type1 diabetes. C-peptide is stored with the help of insulin in β-cell granules as well, and the two are secreted in equimolecular entity of amounts, although unlike insulin, the C-peptide escapes first-pass hepatic clearance and is only cleared by the two kidneys.
Transplantation of Diabetes
Transplantation of Diabetes is New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) which is a serious and frequent metabolic complication after every renal transplantation. This entity is currently and thoroughly well-defined since the publication of the International Consensus Guidelines in 2003. So here, we review the factors contributing to the risk of NODAT and the strategies related to the modifiable factors, with the emphasis on practical issues. Recognizing these factors may help in clinicians to evaluate the prospectively appropriate prevention strategies to minimize the risk of NODAT.
Case Reports & Review Research
Case reports & Review Research should be describing unusual clinical cases and also must carry new or important message. Cases that are present a diagnostic, ethical, management challenge, or that of highlights aspects or causes of the mechanisms of the injury, pharmacology or histopathology are deemed for a particular form of educational values. Descriptions of a series cases that stands a greater chance of being accepted.
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of conditions that occurs together and increasing your risk of heart diseases as well as stroke and type2 diabetes. These conditions include increased blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels. Having just one of these types of conditions or situations that don’t mean you have a metabolic syndrome.
Miscellaneous Diabetic Complications
Miscellaneous Diabetic Complications have Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus. ... Micro vascular complications includes such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy as well. These complications are directly related to the hyperglycemia. Tight glycemic control has been shown to reduce the development and progression of these mentioned complications.
Alternative Medicine for Diabetes
Alternative Medicine for Diabetes which includes Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) refers to a wide range of clinical therapies outside of conventional medicine. The term “complementary” refers to therapies that are used in conjunction with in the conventional medicine, whereas “alternative” medicine includes therapies that are used in the place of conventional medicine. The term “integrative” medicine is advocated by some CAM providers and also by researchers as representing a combination of conventional medicine and evidence-based medicine.
Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes
Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes describes that Stem cells use in islet cell transplants. To cure type1 diabetes, stem cell replacement is very needed to be used more than simply with a case of swapping insulin-producing the cells from a healthy pancreas with those destroyed by diabetes in a diabetic patient. Numerous complications preclude this as a simple way of treating the diabetes.
Nursing Care for Diabetes Patient
Nursing care for Diabetes patient describes for nursing management of the person with diabetes mellitus. ... Patients with type1 diabetes need insulin to regulate their blood glucose levels, whereas patients with type2 diabetes suffers from weight loss and dietary management may be sufficient in controlling blood glucose levels.
Advanced Technologies for the Treatment of Diabetes
Advanced Technologies for the Treatment of Diabetes describes that the Blood glucose (blood sugar) monitoring is the main processing tool you have to check your diabetes control. This check tells you whether your blood glucose level is at any one time. The artificial pancreas bridges have the gap between two pieces of diabetes and technology that already exist: Insulin pump and also with the continuous glucose monitor such as (CGM). Accordingly, a large percentage of world population is affected by the diabetes mellitus, out of which approximately 5-10% with the type 1 diabetes whereas the remaining 90% with type 2. Insulin administration is utmost essential for type 1 patients while it is required almost at the later stage by the patients of type 2. Current insulin delivery systems are available as transdermal injections which may be also considered as an invasive.